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setjmp/longjmp 使用注意

tk posted @ May 31, 2012 05:07:31 PM in C with tags 非局部跳转 , 2085 阅读
  1. 不应从调用 setjmp() 的过程中返回。
    如果setjmp所在的函数已经调用返回了,那么longjmp 使用该处 setjmp 所填写的对应 jmp_buf 缓冲区将不再有效。这是因为longjmp 所要返回的"栈帧"(stack frame) 已经不再存在了,程序返回到一个不再存在的执行点,很可能覆盖或者弄坏程序栈。
    上篇文章叙述过这个,也可以参见:setjmp 的正确使用
     
  2. 保证局部变量在 longjmp 过程中一直保持它的值的唯一可靠方法是把它声明为 volatile (这使用于那些值在 setjmp 执行和longjmp 返回之间会改变的变量) 详细可以参见:setjmp 和 longjmp,以及对变量的影响 

    简单来说如下:
    1. 优化不影响 global, static, volatile 变量。
    2. 标出来的那句话意思是,保存在内存中的变量,longjmp返回后,保持了longjmp时的值。
        而在 cpu 中的值将会退回到setjmp时的值。
    3. 没有优化时global, static, volatile, auto, register都存在内存中。
        返回的时候,这些值仍然是longjmp时候的值。
        但在有优化的时候, auto, register的值是在寄存器的。
        所以返回的时候,这两个值是在setjmp时候的值。
     
  3. 编程的惯用法: if( setjmp(x) ){/* handle longjmp(x) */}。
     
  4. 仅在特定范围内引用 setjmp 。
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